There’s no safe or healthy way to get a tan. A tan doesn’t protect your skin from the sun’s harmful effects. Aim to strike a balance between protecting yourself from the sun and getting enough vitamin D from sunlight. Sunburn increases your risk of skin cancer. Sunburn doesn’t just happen on holiday – you can burn in the UK, even when it’s cloudy.
Who should take extra care in the sun?
- have pale, white or light brown skin
- have lots of moles or freckles or red or fair hair
- tend to burn rather than tan
- have many moles
- have skin problems relating to a medical condition
- are only exposed to intense sun occasionally (for example, while on holiday)
- are in a hot country where the sun is particularly intense
- have a family history of skin cancer
- spend a lot of time in the sun
People with naturally brown or black skin are less likely to get skin cancer, as darker skin has some protection against UV rays. But skin cancer can still occur. Avoid getting caught out by sunburn. Use shade, clothing and a sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30 to protect yourself.
Skin cancer is much easier to treat if it's found early. Skin changes to check for and report to your doctor as soon as possible include:
- a new mole, growth or lump
- any moles, freckles or patches of skin that change in size, shape or colour
The British Association of Dermatologists advises that people should not use sunbeds or sunlamps. Sunbeds and lamps can be more dangerous than natural sunlight because they use a concentrated source of UV radiation. Health risks include skin cancer, premature skin ageing, sunburnt skin, eye irritation. It's illegal for people under the age of 18 to use sunbeds, including in tanning salons, beauty salons, leisure centres, gyms and hotels.
How can I avoid Sunburn?
Sun safety tips
Spend time in the shade when the sun is strongest. In the UK, this is between 11am and 3pm from March to October. Make sure you;
· Shade – spend time in the shade between 11am and 3pm
· Cover up – with suitable clothing such as wide brimmed hat, long sleeved top and long trousers or skirts
· Sunscreen – use at least factor 30 sunscreen
· Take extra care with children – Children and the elderly are particularly prone to sun burn
· Protect your eyes in the sun – A day at the beach without proper eye protection can cause a temporary but painful burn to the surface of the eye, similar to sunburn. Reflected sunlight from snow, sand, concrete and water, and artificial light from sunbeds, is particularly dangerous. Avoid looking directly at the sun, as this can cause permanent eye damage. Use sunglasses with wraparound lenses or wide arms with the CE Mark and British Standard Mark 12312-1:2013 E.
When using sunscreen make sure you;
· Use a sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 30 to protect against UVB
· Ensure it has at least four-star UVA protection. A “UVA” in a circle indicates that it meets the EU standard
· Do not use it past its expiry date – most sunscreens have a shelf life of two to three years
· Don’t spend any longer in the sun than you would without sunscreen.
If you’ve had skin cancer, you should avoid spending too long in the sun. Your skin cancer specialist might suggest a high factor sunscreen such as SPF 50 on any exposed skin. The SPF is to give you extra protection. It does not mean you can safely sunbathe. For more information about how to apply sunscreen see link.
How do I treat Sunburn?
If you or your child has sunburn, you should get out of the sun as soon as possible – head indoors or into a shady area. You can usually treat mild sunburn at home, although there are some circumstances where you should get medical advice.
To help relieve your symptoms until your skin heals:
- Cool your skin by having a cold bath, shower or damp cloth or sponging it with cold water
- Use aftersun cream or spray like those containing aloe vera to soothe and moisturise your skin
- Drink plenty of fluids to cool you down and prevent dehydration
- Take painkillers, such as ibuprofen or paracetamol, to relieve pain (but don’t give aspirin to children under 16)
- Try to avoid all sunlight, including through windows, by covering up the affected areas of skin until it’s fully healed.
Contact your GP, go to your nearest NHS walk-in centre, or call NHS 111 if you feel unwell or you’re concerned about your sunburn, particularly if you’re burnt over a large area or have any of the more severe symptoms listed below.
You should also see your GP if a young child or baby has sunburn as their skin is particularly sensitive.
Signs of severe sunburn can include:
· blistering or swelling of the skin
· a high temperature (fever) of 38C (100.4F) or above
· chills · dizziness, headaches and feeling sick – symptoms of heat exhaustion
· a headache and muscle cramps.